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Coastguard Boating Education Ocean Yachtmaster Certificate

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This is the highest qualification offered in New Zealand for non-commercial mariners.
Candidates for this certificate must hold a New Zealand Coastal Skipper's certificate, and be able to prove at least 400 hours sea-time, with a minimum of 50 hours beyond harbour limits and at least 72 hours continuous time at sea at least 30 miles off-shore.
For final qualification for receiving the certificate candidates must also hold a current first aid certificate (St John Adult grade, or Ocean Medic or equivalent), and have a Restricted Radio Operators Licence.
The written examinations may be taken without holding any qualification, however the Ocean Yachtmaster Certificate can only be issued after completing all of the necessary requirements.


Paper 1: Ocean Navigation.
Time allowed 3 hours; 6 questions are set with an overall pass-mark of 120 out of 200, however question 1 bears 80 marks and 48 marks (60%) must be achieved for this question alone.

1.1 To find the latitude by meridian altitude of the sun.

2.1 Standard and local times. Time keeping at sea.
2.2 The times of sunrise and sunset, twilight, or meridian passage of the sun to the nearest minute, in GMT or in Zone Time.

3.1 To find the compass error or deviation of the compass by time azimuth of the sun or a star or by amplitude of the sun.

4.1 From an observation of the sun or star out of the meridian find the information required to plot the position line.
4.2 To plot the ship's position by the combination of two observations, with or without a run between, plotted on a given chart.

5.1 Planning mornning and evening sights, and selecting the most suitable stars.
5.2 Approximate altitudes and azimuths of selected stars. (Candidates may use a short method or a star identification device for this purpose).

6.1 The use of any suitable method to obtain an estimated position, given a series of courses steered and distances run, with or without current, tide or leeway.

7.1 The effect of change of the vessel's position on compass error.
7.2 The influence on directive force of hard iron and horizontal soft iron.
7.3 A practical understanding of heeling error.
7.4 The procedure for having a compass corrected for an ocean passage.
7.5 The practical use of and basic problems with fluxgate compasses.

8.1 The setting up and modes of readout of GPS.
8.2 The advantage and the limitations of radar and GPS.
8.3 The major errors of radar and GPS.
8.4 The information provided by GPS.

Paper 2: General Knowledge.
Time allowed 2 hours; 5 questions are set with an overall pass-mark of 60 out of 100.

1.1 An outline knowledge of the legal requirements of the Maritime Transport Act with respect to pleasure vessels regarding:
Clearing outwards from New Zealand;
Arrival in New Zealand from a foreign port;
Obligations regarding distress calls, collisions and dangers to navigation;
Keeping a log.

2.1 A general appreciation of the distribution of prevailing oceanic winds, ocean currents, fog, storms.
2.2 Tropical Revolving storms; locations, seasons and tracks.
2.3 Navigation near a revolving storm.
2.4 Information provided by analysis and prognostic weather maps.

3.1 A non mathematical treatment of the centre of gravity, centre of buoyancy, and the effects of adding, removing and shifting weights.
3.2 Free surface effect.
3.3 The effect of force and freeboard on stability. Reserve buoyancy. Stiff and tender characteristics.
3.4 An understanding of list, heel and loll.
3.5 Prevention of down flooding.

4.1 The procedure for having a vessel surveyed to offshore standards.
4.2 The names of the principal components in vessel construction and rig.
4.3 The basic principles of sound construction in wood, fibreglass, steel and aluminium.
4.4 The main areas of stress and approved methods of spreading the strain.
4.5 The prevention of corrosion and electrolysis.
4.6 Th requirements in construction and layout of ocean-going pleasure vessels to Yachting new Zealand Standard Category 1.

Oral Examination.
The examination will be based upon te following syllabus, but the examiner may ask any other questions applicable to an ocean passage in a sailing or power driven pleasure vessel.

1.1 A full knowledge of the content and application of the collision prevention rules.

2.1 Depth finders and logs; use and maintenance.
2.2 To use a pelorus or other instrument for taking bearings.
2.3 Choice of timepiece.
2.4 To use a sextant for taking vertical and horizontal angles. To read a sextant on and off the arc.
2.5 To ascertain and correct any error of perpendicularity, side or index error which has been introduced into a sextant. Methods of finding index error.
2.6 To read and interpret an aneroid barometer.
2.7 A basic knowledge of radio systems: GPS, Loran C, weather facsimile.

3.1 Leaving New Zealand on an Ocean Passage.
3.2 Publications; those essential and those useful.
3.3 Selection of route.
3.4 The use of charts.
3.5 Making a landfall.
3.6 Arrival and departure in a foreign port.
3.7 IALA Buoyage Systems A and B.

4.1 Lifesaving and firefighting equipment for a Yachting New Zealand Category 1 pleasure vessel; its care and use.
4.2 Food and water supplies.
4.3 Spare gear to carry; its stowage and care.
4.4 Prevention of wear on sails, rigging and other moving parts.
4.5 Emergency repairs at sea to essential equipment.

5.1 The phonetic alphabet and numerals.
5.2 A simple use of the International Code of Signals book.
5.3 Single sideband and VHF radios, their advantages and limitations.
5.4 EPIRB, 121.5/243 and 406 MHz types.
5.5 International Distress Signals.

6.1 Manoeuvring in rivers and harbours.
6.2 Berthing and leaving a berth (wharf, buoy or dock).
6.3 Anchoring: selecting and approaching an anchorage.
6.4 Handling a vessel in heavy weather.
6.5 Knowledge of heaving to, lying ahull and running.
6.6 Sea anchors and drogues; limitations, deployments and retrieval.

7.1 Firefighting. Stranding. Collision. Heavy weather damage. Control of leaks.
7.2 Jury masting and rigging. Jury steering gear systems.
7.3 Distress procedures. Abandoning ship. Liferafts. Search and rescue.
7.4 Man overboard.
7.5 Towing and being towed.
7.6 Assisting a vessel in distress. Rescuing the crew of a disabled craft.
7.7 Serious illness or injury to a crew member. Danger of exposure.
7.8 Sources of outside assistance.

8.1 Crew selection and management.
8.2 Crew watchbilll and the crew's responsibilities.
8.3 Master's legal responsibilities.

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